Results 1 to 9 of 9

Thread: Starting a new tank?

  1. #1

    Default Starting a new tank?

    I'll admit im not new, sorry to dissapoint. But i figured this was a good place to put this. There are a lot of questions about setting up a new tank and i figured a post to refer to would help. Enjoy.

    This is a guide for those who have done the research, have decided what they want to get out of their tank and what they want to put in it. This guide will not address substrates, lighting, filters or heaters, you can research that on your own.

    What you will need to do to make it safe for fish and shrimp.

    What you need:
    tank - setup and ready to go
    Ammonia, Nitrite and Nitrate test kits
    Water dechlorinator
    A prawn/fish food

    First things first, basic rules:

    Never wash hands with soap before playing with the tank, never spray chemicals around the tank. Ensure no poisons ever enter the tank. Do not use rainwater from high pollution areas or after long dry spells. Always wash hands with water before playing with the tank to ensure all chemical residues come off.


    You need to perform a process known as cycling, to make the tank safe for fish. This is because ammonia, a by product of waste decaying is toxic to fish and will eventually kill them. Bacterial colonies are established on all the hard surfaces on the tank, the more surface area, the more bacteria. These bacteria will oxidize the ammonia, NH3 into Nitrites, NO2. Unfortunately nitrites are toxic too, so more bacterial colonies,have to establish themselves in the tank, unfortunately, these bacteria are a different type to the first ones. After a period of time, the bacteria will be at a level that will break down all the Ammonia into Nitrates, which is when the tank is safe for fish. These nitrates still have to be removed however, as they can build up to lethal concentratios, this is achieved through water changes and by removal through plants and nitrification, but in small amounts, they are safe for fish and shrimp.


    Before anything goes into your tank, you will have to cycle it. This often takes between 1 and 6 weeks.

    There are multiple methods, chemical, fishless, fish in etc etc etc.

    I am only going to advocate one method, it is natural and is fishless. This is the easiest method, the least stressful and the most ethical.

    Set up your tank according to your research, make sure everything is how you want it to be at the end. Fill the tank, dechlorinate the water and then throw in a frozen prawn or a little bit of fish food. Plants can go in at this stage, it is beneficial in fact, however nothing fancy. If you can get filter media from an established tank, or gravel from a cycled tank, add this now, this will speed up the cycle. Test for nitrates and record. Then you will need to wait. If the food starts to go really fuzzy and stink, remove it, it has done its job.

    You can do this next step anywhere from 2-7 days after you first started the cycle, test the water for ammonia, nitrite and nitrates. If there is ammonia, nitrite and nitrates, the cycle is going well. If there is only ammonia, the cycle is progressing slowly, ensure you dechlorinated the water that went in originally. For the 2 above, wait another 2-7 days and test again, repeating until there is no ammonia and no nitrites.

    When there is no ammonia, no nitrite and a raise in the nitrates, it’s possible the tank has finished cycling. Wait a few days and test again, if the nitrates have risen, there is no ammonia and no nitrite, perform a water change of around 25% -50%, dechlorinate the water going in and wait another day. Test again.

    It is quite likely that the tank has cycled.

    At this point you may wish to buy a GH, KH and pH test kit, depending on what fish you are after. More research must be done here.

    If GH is very low, it is important to add Calcium, from marble chips or crushed oysters/coral, similarly if KH is very low, a small dose of Sodium Bicarbonate (bi carb soda) will help to buffer the pH.

    If you aren’t breeding difficult fish, the pH of your tap water should be fine. Do not bother adjusting it. It is time consuming, expensive and can cause huge troubles. Your tank should be safe for fish now.

    Your tank is ready for fish. Take care and enjoy.


    Last edited by mr_c265; 02-04-13 at 11:37 AM.
    Chris -my tank

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Apr 2007
    Adelaide, South Australia



    Do I need a heater?
    The short answer is yes.

    Unless you're keeping cold water fish, such a goldfish, you're going to need a heater for tropical fish, including bettas, even if your room temperature is currently warm.

    The purpose of a heater is to keep the temperature stable, and prevent it from falling below the temperature you set the heater at. The heater only switches on when the water in the tank falls below that temperature. So, if you set the heater at 24c, and the room & water in the tank is at 26c, the heater stays off, and doesn't use any power. If the room & water in the tank falls overnight to 10c, the heater switches on, to hold the tank at 24c, then switches off when the room heats up.

    Although you may think your room is pretty warm, it is the temperature fluctuation (possibly overnight) that will do more damage to your fish than the overall temperature. You may be starting to pick up a theme here - temperature stability is important, as is pH stability, and large swings will do more damage than anything else. The difference is that with pH, you're generally better letting the fish adjust (other than using soil to modify it), but with temperature you need to use a heater to adjust this to the fish's requirements.

    Heaters come in many brands. The best known quality brands are Eheim Jager & Fluval, with Hydor as a more recent addition. This is not to say that other brands may not work as well, or these brands may not or have not failed. Some people will swear by one brand or another.

    In-line or submersible?
    Either type is acceptible, however for a beginner, unless you have some idea of DIY, or a large tank, you may wish to begin with a standard normal run-of-the-mill submersible heater. If you choose to go down this line, they can be in the tank on an angle, or even horizontally if necessary. Never put your heater on more than 90 degrees (with the black part which the wire comes out of facing down). This is the type of heater that the majority start with.

    Make sure the glass part of the heater does not come out of the water while the heater is turned on or is still warm. Put the heater on enough of an angle that when the water drops with evaporation the glass part of the heater will not be exposed to the air. Make sure that you turn the heater off during water changes. Keep in mind that if it is turned on and exposed to the air, it will in all probability become unreliable, and may cook your fish at some point. It can still be used for heating your water in a water change bucket.

    When choosing your heater, make sure it is small enough to fit in your tank. If you have a small area height-wise, consideer getting 2 heaters, if they will do the job of heating the tank. This is particularly good if you have a tank like the Orcas or some of the Aqua Ones, which hide the filter media and pump behind the back wall of the display, as the heater can also be hidden in there, leaving the display area uncluttered.

    The advantage of in-line heaters is that they sit, as the name implies, in the tubing from the filter to the tank, so they don't show in the tank, ruining the display. Their downfall can be the difficulty in installing them for people who are unsure regarding DIY.

    Which size
    Heaters are rated to heat a certain volume of water. Look for a heater that is rated to heat the volume of water in your tank or more than your volume of water. Many people (myself included) choose to have more than 1 heater in a tank wherever possible, so that if one heater fails, the other heater is still able to compensate. Depending on placement, it may also distribute the heat more evenly, such as in a 6ft tank.

    Most good retailers will advertise the volume of water the heater is rated for when they advertise the heater. If not, do some googling to find it.
    "Weeds are just plants growing in the wrong place" - Jackie French
    Gardening is just racism for plants - Amber, The Old Guys

  3. #3
    Join Date
    Apr 2007
    Adelaide, South Australia



    Substrates are the type of gravel, dirt or soil you choose to put on the bottom of your tank. They come in 2 major types: inert (with no growing properties) and soils (that will help your plants grow).

    Inert Substrates
    If you choose to use plain gravel, the crushed glass that is sold under brand names such as "Aqua One gravel ebony" or plain sand, you are working with inert substrates. This will severely restrict your choices of plants, but does not put an end to your hopes of having a nicely planted tank.

    If you choose to have sand, you need to look for a sand which is inert - in other words, it does not affect the pH of the tank. The most effective way of doing this is to buy a known brand that does not cause issues. Pool sand is one option, and Bunnings sand is an alternative.

    If you choose to go with gravel (or any rocks) use the vinegar test. Drop at least 10 drops of vinegar onto the rocks in question. If they fizz, they are likely to alter the pH in the tank, as they contain calcium carbonate, which will break down in the tank, changing the carbonate hardness (kH) of the tank's water, which in turn alters the pH.

    Be aware that if you go with a crushed glass product, it may be incompatible with fish such as corydoras (corys) and others that spend time on the bottom of the tank or search for food, as the glass can be sharp and cut the fish.

    That's all the bad news - but not quite. When you look at rocks, make sure that they're not too good to be true. Scratch them with your fingernails, or a nail or - oh, whatever you can come up with. See if they're painted. If they are, just back off, leave the shiny pretty rocks alone. You will live to regret it.

    OK, now we're past that - plants! There are 3 ways around this:
    - root tabs - Seachem Root tabs or Dino Dung (no, really) from Aquagreen cheaper if bought in packs. This gives you the ability to plant things like red tiger lotuses, echinodoruses (swords), valisneria (vals, you can go for the corkscrew or native types too), crypts, aponogentons and other root feeders. The one thing you won't be able to achieve with this method are carpet plants.
    - Plants attached to driftwood/rocks/whatever-takes-your-fancy: These include java fern (narrow/ needle leaf/ windelov), bolbitis fern, anubias (nana/ petite/ Jenny/ coffefolia/ etc), riccia and mosses (except Christmas, which requires high light & Marimo balls - which are both illegal & may see you having a visit form the govt & your tank wiped out & roll on the floor anyway).
    You can attach them using fishing line or cotton (make sure there are no loose loops your fish can be caught in), or superglue - from the $2 shop is fine, but make sure your plant doesn't dry out. Using a spray bottle with tank water is fine.
    - Stem plants: you can fertilise these using additives to your water column, such as EI, Seachem Flourish, Dino Spit & Dino Pee or many of the other alternatives on the market. Be aware that if you use Dino Pee, Seachem Excel or Gluteraldehyde (all effectively similar products), they will melt your vals, and if applied directly to your mosses, can have the same effect on them. Then again, if you squirt your daily dose onto an area with algae, it will make short work of many algaes, but won't fix the imbalance that caused it.

    Back to the point...

    There are many recipes out there. The one above, or the Walstad method seem to be 2 of the most popular. The advantage of 2Tone's is that, particularly in larger tanks, it is cheaper than pre-prepared soils, but allows you to grow carpet plants, it does not cycle the way soils do - you can add critters straight away if you have a cycled filter. It also creates it own CO2. It is siutable for low light tanks, but not medium or high light.

    The only one that will harden your water & raise your pH is eco-complete, according to its reputation. Having said that, it depends on the water you originally have. My water was soft, so my tank with eco-complete has been at 7.0 for years. It has not broken down.

    Some are designed specifically for shrimp, such as up-aqua shrimp sand & benabachi soil. These are designed to lower the pH to around 6.4 to 6.8. Plants on driftwood (as described above) can be used in these tanks. They will raise the ammonia level initially quite high, which will help to cycle the tank. However be aware that this may be harmful to livestock already in the tank. You can put the soil in a different container initially while it goes through that spike, then add it to the tank in a few weeks.

    Others are designed for planted tanks: ADA and up-aqua are 2 of the best known brands. If the brand you have seen has not been mentioned, it is no reflection on its effectiveness or otherwise, simply on a fast failing attempt at brevity in this post. With this soil your happy planty world opens up! Live to plant! You get to do carpet plants, heavy feeding root plants, plants with running roots - any old plants you want. Well, OK, not quite. You're still restricted by your light & CO2. Oh, and these soils will also have an initial ammonia spike. ADA is known to spike high enough to melt some plants. Up-aqua will also spike over the first few weeks. You can manage this using the above method. Happy planting!

    If you have low light, you don't need CO2 yet, but medium or high light you do. If you're looking at medium or high light in the future, you're really limiting your options with anything but a soil based substrate. You can add lights & CO2 later.

    So, now you've got all the information on soils - well, all the basics, happy choosing, and happy planting!
    "Weeds are just plants growing in the wrong place" - Jackie French
    Gardening is just racism for plants - Amber, The Old Guys

  4. #4
    Join Date
    Apr 2007
    Adelaide, South Australia


    With the kind permission of Bardus71:

    Quote Originally Posted by bardus71

    Cleaning Your Filter/ Avoiding New Tank Syndrome

    As a follow on how to cycle your tank, keeping your tank cycled is an important consideration thereon after, and that means being able to keep your filter working well enough to constantly and consistently keep converting toxic ammonia to less toxic nitrite, and nitrite to even less toxic nitrate.

    Now, as you may or may not know, the ability of your filter to do this is dependent on you cultivating a healthy colony of beneficial bacteria. Many unnecessary fish deaths are caused by "cleaning' your filter, and killing all these wonderful & beneficial bacteria that keep your tank from becoming toxic.

    Think of it this way. If you killed all the trees on the planet, us humans would have no oxygen to breathe, and the air would get toxic pretty quickly. So, in your tank and filter, you want to grow, and keep these wonderful beneficial bacteria alive. You want to cultivate them, so that, in turn, your fish may live. Therefore, they are as important in your tank as the fish you keep.

    The best & easiest way to kill the beneficial bacteria in your tank and make your tank toxic is to clean your filter in untreated tap water. That will do it every time. Now that you know how to do it, don't do it. . Likewise, if you do not clean your filter in safe water and get it up & running again promptly, the beneficial bacteria will surely die. Now that you know that too, don't do it.

    My suggestion is this. You will want to do a water change in your tank at some stage to keep the nitrates at a suitable level. Utilise this water from your tank while you are doing a water change to safely clean out your sponges and filter media, and then get your filter up and running again ASAP.

    Easy task, and without killing off your beneficial bacteria population, your fish will survive.

    Other areas of risk to consider from here are:
    - Increasing the bioload/number of fish & creatures in your tank too quickly so that the waste cannot be converted by the amount of beneficial bacteria that you already have. The best idea is to introduce new stock into your tank slowly so that the beneficial beacteria have time to grow and accommodate the new amount of fish waste/ammonia to be converted.
    - overstocking your tank with more stock than your tank & filter is capable of handling. A good guide to stocking levels and filter capacity here is

    I'm happy for someone else to claim this info, the general idea is that having the topic will save people and fishes unneccsary trauma & heartbreak.
    "Weeds are just plants growing in the wrong place" - Jackie French
    Gardening is just racism for plants - Amber, The Old Guys

  5. #5
    Join Date
    Apr 2007
    Adelaide, South Australia


    Kindly provided by Mr c265:

    Quote Originally Posted by mr_c265


    From time to time all aquariums will require maintenance. This maintenance schedule depends on what kind of tank you have, what substrate you have, your stocking and whether it is planted or not.

    Basic maintenance includes:
    Water changes (weekly to monthly)
    Filter clean (fortnightly to every 2 months)
    Glass cleaning (as needed)
    Plant trimming (as needed)
    Gravel Syphon (varies- weekly to never)
    (although some may not apply to you)

    Water changes

    It is important to perform water changes to remove built up organics and nitrogenous waste that accumulates in the water. This waste will accumulate over time and will eventually negatively impact on your fishes health.

    Water changes should be conducted whenever your NO3 is getting high, as this is a good indicator that your tank is accumulating waste. High levels of NO3 vary, but 20ppm is a good indicator, although for shrimp or sensitive fish, 10ppm may be better and for a heavily planted high tech tank, 30ppm + may be appropriate.

    Water should first be removed from the tank, between 10% and 50% is a normal amount, depending on how often water changes occur. This is done so by using a syphon. There are plenty of self starting syphons on the market, however there are other ways, such as sucking the water into the tube (remove mouth before contact with water occurs) or by filling it from the hose, putting a finger over the end and putting one end in the tank, the other in a bucket. Syphons will only work downhill, i.e drain must be lower than the aquarium. Otherwise a pump will be needed.

    New water should be measured out in a clean, aquarium use only bucket. The first bit of water out of the tap should be discarded or used to rinse the bucket as it may contain standing water that has absorbed toxic copper from the tap system.

    All water going into the tank must be dechlorinated, to prevent chlorine from damaging the inhabitants sensitive gills. This is most often done with Prime, although nearly any dechlorinator will do ( I personally have a DIY dechlorinater, literally any will do). Some water will contain chloramine, this will put small amounts of ammonia into the tank, hence smaller water changes are better to limit the fish and the bacterial colony’s exposure to ammonia spikes. Other people use RO water, this is another matter altogether and if you want information on it and how it is done, PM me (mr_c265).

    Filter Cleaning
    Filters must from time to time be cleaned to allow them to continue working properly. They should be cleaned in water that has been removed from the tank to prevent chlorine or drastic water condition changes from damaging the bacterial populations and thus destroying their ability to process fish waste. Actual process will vary based on the filter, but commonly includes rinsing and squeezing sponges and swishing around water to remove waste from other medias. Sometimes media will have to be replaced, like carbon or filter wool, this is a good time to do that.

    Glass cleaning
    Done usually for aesthetics, involves scraping with a flat hard non scratching object like a credit card, dedicated algae scraper or by using an abrasive magnetic commercial product or a NEW washed and unsoaped plastic scourer.

    Gravel Syphon
    Optional again, done for aesthetics. Is done with an aquarium siphon, often similar to the one used in water changes. Siphon up the gravel, dirt will come down the pipe, gravel will fall harmlessly back to the bottom of the tank.
    Difficult to do with layered substrates and an absolute no no with capped soil.


    "Weeds are just plants growing in the wrong place" - Jackie French
    Gardening is just racism for plants - Amber, The Old Guys

  6. #6


    Acclimatizing new fish, shrimp and invertebrates

    When you are adding new stock to an existing, cycled, stable tank, it is important to acclimatize your new pets to prevent them from going into shock.
    This shock can take two forms: Osmotic and Temperature.
    When you are receiving a fish/shrimp/invert, chances are it will have come from a tank with different parameters than yours. This difference in parameters can occur even between two of your own tanks. It is important to get them used to the new parameters of your tank as this will allow the animals internal processes to continue working the way they are supposed to. Similarly, it is important to temperature match.

    There are two main methods:

    Drip acclimitization (recommended)
    Float acclimitization (old fashioned)

    Drip acclimitization

    This involves slowly dripping water into a container or the bag that contains the fish/shrimp that you are attempting to move. This dripping should be done over the course of anywhere from 1 hour to 8 hours depending on the species, and should ideally double or triple the original volume of water that the fish came in. This is to ensure that the critter slowly gets used to the new parameters of your tank and will not go into shock upon being transferred.
    This dripping is done using normally a piece of airline tubing that is siphoning water from the tank and has been either been pegged (with a clothes peg) or had a valve added so that it drips around once a second. Once the water level has risen in the bag/container to around 2-3 times what it originally was and the temperatures seem about the same, it is normally safe to transfer your new pet to the tank. This is normally done using a net so as to avoid adding water from the LFS or from other tanks to yours to prevent disease. NOTE: Delicate species will require much much longer than hardy species to acclimatize, and fish that have gone from salt to brackish or brackish to fresh will require longer again. Shrimp are in the upper range (i personally use 2 hours for Cherry Shrimp, and much much more should be used for CRS,CBS and TB's)

    Float acclimatization

    Whilst not recommended, floating can still successfully acclimatize a fish. You float the bag in the new tanks water until the temperatures equalize, then you add a little bit at a time over the course of an hour to the bag. This is only for hardy species, and has many flaws, such as toxic compounds entering the tank through the outside of the bag and the potential that still remains for the new fish to suffer from shock.

    And finally, do you really need to acclimatize everything that goes in?

    Yes, you do. Any creature that lives underwater will use the water to regulate its bodily processes, so it will need to be acclimatized. Even snails. Failure to do so can often have no visible consequences, however will always cause some issues and can often result in death.
    Chris -my tank

  7. #7
    Join Date
    Apr 2007
    Adelaide, South Australia


    The laws about collecting driftwood or any fallen wood vary from State to State. In Victoria it is illegal to remove fallen wood from any properties – Government, private or dams. In South Australia it is illegal to remove anything from National Parks, and the owner’s permission must be gained before removing wood from private property. Check your local laws and by-laws before attempting to collect any wood yourself.

    If you choose to collect your own wood, and have found somewhere to do so that is legal for you to collect from, your next question is what type of wood. All species of Eucalypt are safe, as are Melaleuca. Do not use Oleander, or any plants with toxicity, medicinal or drug related properties not used for fish, or poisons. Google should answer your questions, but if it’s out of the garden and you don’t know the plant it’s more likely to be an issue.

    Your next question is whether the wood has been sprayed at any point with poisons in the past few years. The best way to know for sure is to collect from the property the wood came from, and ask the owner. If you’re collecting wood that has come down a creek, river or is in the sea, you will be taking pot luck on whether it has been sprayed. Many councils do spray with poisons regularly, as do the Dept of Environment & Heritage. If the ground is sprayed, it will usually drift up into the branches. Poisons sprayed on the wood may not do your plants too much damage – difficult to tell without knowing what has been used. It will probably shorten the lifespan of your fish or other livestock, or kill them very quickly, as they are swimming in it. Once poison is in your tank, your substrate, plants, filter media and possibly equipment may need to be replaced.

    If you find a safe piece of wood, you need to sink it. If you find it in a dam, it has already been soaking and you’re ahead of the game. The older the wood for Eucalypt, the less time it will take to sink on average. Boiling is said to speed the process. Otherwise soaking the wood outside the tank may help not only to sink it, but reduce the tannins (brown water) released when you put the water in the tank. A small piece can be put in the toilet cistern (with no trace of dyes or cleaners, only water of course) for weeks, until it sinks. A floating piece of wood can be held down with a suitable rock until it has sunk. Tannins will not harm your fish, in fact they are beneficial for apistos and others, and people add Indian Almond Leaves (IAL) to create this. It can reduce your pH, and turn your tankwater brown (known as blackwater).

    If you don’t want to take the trouble to look for a safe collection source, or risks for your tank in collecting yourself, you have many more options for the type of wood – goldvine, some very finely branched lacy pieces, multi-coloured monapei wood and many others. These may be at your local fish store (LFS) or through the sponsors on the forum here, with minimal shipping costs involved if you’re not able to get there.

    Keep in mind that driftwood is organic – it comes from a living thing. So it is capable of carrying some diseases or algae from a tank/pond/dam/creek to your tank if it is not boiled OR washed in 5% bleach & 95% water, then very thoroughly rinsed. It will only do this if there is a disease present of course. If you buy “new” wood from a LFS that has dried out, it is as safe as anything is.
    "Weeds are just plants growing in the wrong place" - Jackie French
    Gardening is just racism for plants - Amber, The Old Guys

  8. #8
    Join Date
    Apr 2007
    Adelaide, South Australia



    Types of lighting
    There are 4 types of lighting - but I might be lying about that. There are T8's, T5's, LED's & Metal Halides. And then I might tack some others on the end - but we'll worry about that later. I don't pretend to be an expert on lighting, but this is a brief overview to get you started in your research as a beginner, so you've got an understanding of the lingo.

    T8's are the thick tubes that look a bit like the fluros that you might use in your kitchen or office. They have been used in the aquarium industry for a long time, and have been largely superceded by improvements, although these older models are still in use. They generally give low light, although to know the lighting spectrum, you'll need a chart. The advantage is that the tubes are generally readily available. Tubes should be in the range of 6,000k - 10,000k for optimum plant growth.

    T5's are the more commonly used tubes now. They are thinner than T8's. They were developed after T8's and give a higher output, although in reality, it is the reflector (the unit that the light sits in) that determines the output of the light more than the globe itself.

    This is the growth area of lighting in aquariums at the moment. But all LED's are not the same. Some are not in the spectrum that grow plants, and others are not strong enough to reach the bottom of a tank. So before rushing out & buying an LED for your tank, do your research, make sure you're getting what you need. The LED's that are designed well use less power than either the electric T8's or T5's or the Metal Halides. The well designed LED's make an impressive display, with better output than the T8's or T5's, and seek to be on par with Metal Halides, but without the heat output.

    Metal Halides
    These are the big guns of aquarium lighting. They have been around for awhile. They need to be strung from the ceiling above the tank due to their heat output, and they chew through power. However their light output is impressive compared to T8's which was their competition at the time. Heat output is a major issue over summer, as both livestock and plants can overheat & die if plants are left on.

    Oh, I did mention I may be lying, right?
    If you have a very small tank, there is another option: you can get a small clip-on or stand light to light your tank. These usually hold clip-in flourescent globes (make sure you get white, not the yellow or blue options). Some forum members have used lamps from office supply stores, or other outlets for small tanks - for larger tanks the light would not reach to the bottom of the tank.

    So (Just my opinion:
    As a beginner, although many start with T8's, if given the option and setting up your own system, T5's will give more options for moving up to medium to high light plants later & adding CO2 systems later down the track, by adding additional T5 units, where T8's are low light units, LED's & metal halides may require a CO2 set-up straight off, which requires a level of skill in balancing ferts & CO2 to deal with new tank syndrome, and may diminish the enjoyment of owning a new tank. Once someone has a firm grasp of the principles of maintaining an aquarium, then moving on to other things is less of an issue.
    "Weeds are just plants growing in the wrong place" - Jackie French
    Gardening is just racism for plants - Amber, The Old Guys

  9. #9
    Join Date
    Apr 2007
    Adelaide, South Australia


    Low light tank options for plants:

    These are some examples of low light tanks from previous threads:


    In inert gravel:

    In eco-complete, past pictures of the tank with discus & flourite covered with sand:

    In up-aqua soil:

    In 2Tone's DIY substrate:
    "Weeds are just plants growing in the wrong place" - Jackie French
    Gardening is just racism for plants - Amber, The Old Guys

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts